Current Soviet Policies, (New York: F. A. Praeger, 1953), p 5, 11, 14.It can become democratic only through the abolition of mass democracy, i.e., if society has succeeded in restoring the prerogatives of privacy by granting them to all and protecting them for each.That is, it continues to link the realization of the general interest to that of particular vested interests.The preceding discussion proposed that the new scientific rationality was in itself, in its very abstractness and purity, operational inasmuch as it developed under an instrumentalist horizon.The unified, functional language is an irreconcilably anti-critical and anti-dialectical language.
The linguistic analyst finds this purged language an accomplished fact, and he takes the impoverished language as he finds it, insulating it from that which is not expressed in it although it enters the established universe of discourse as element and factor of meaning.The works of alienation are themselves incorporated into this society and circulate as part and parcel of the equipment which adorns and psychoanalyzes the prevailing state of affairs.
As modern classics, the avant-garde and the beatniks share in the function of entertaining without endangering the good conscience of the men of good will.As long as they are kept incapable of being autonomous, as long as they are indoctrinated and manipulated (down to their very instincts), their answer to this question cannot be taken as their own.The unrealistic sound of these propositions is indicative, not of their utopian character, but of the strength of the forces which prevent their realization.
At the most advanced stage of capitalism, this society is a system of subdued pluralism, in which the competing institutions concur in solidifying the power of the whole over the individual.In this respect, it makes little difference whether the validating context is that of mathematics, of logical propositions, or of custom and usage.Under the rule of a repressive whole, liberty can be made into a powerful instrument of domination.By classifying and distinguishing meanings, and keeping them apart, it purges thought and speech of contradictions, illusions, and transgressions.However, the defense laboratories and the executive offices, the governments and the machines, the time-keepers and managers, the efficiency experts and the political beauty parlors (which provide the leaders with the appropriate make-up) speak a different language and, for the time being, they seem to have the last word.To the denial of freedom, even of the possibility of freedom, corresponds the granting of liberties where they strengthen the repression.
Individual, non-quantifiable qualities stand in the way of an organization of men and things in accordance with the measurable power to be extracted from them.Today, the rational and realistic notions of yesterday again appeal to be mythological when confronted with the actual conditions.If it is not a proper noun, the subject is more than a noun: it names the concept of a thing, a universal which the sentence defines as in a particular state or function.In one way or another, all possibly meaningful predicates are prejudged.In the less advanced capitalist countries, where strong segments of the militant labor movement are still alive (France, Italy), their force is pitted against that of accelerated technological and political rationalization authoritarian form.In exhibiting its contradictions as the token of its truth, this universe of discourse closes itself against any other discourse which is not on its own terms.
The celebration of the autonomous personality, of humanism, of tragic and romantic love appears to be the ideal of a backward stage of the development.One-dimensional thought is systematically promoted by the makers of politics and their purveyors of mass information.This description is of precisely that metaphysical character which positivistic analysis wishes to eliminate by translation, but the translation eliminates that which was to be defined.In the present situation, the negative features of automation are predominant: speed-up, technological unemployment, strengthening of the position of management, increasing impotence and resignation on the part of the workers.To be abstract is to transcend the particular occasion of actual happening.The enchained possibilities of advanced industrial societies are: development of the productive forces on an enlarged scale, extension of the conquest of nature, growing satisfaction of needs for a growing number of people, creation of new needs and faculties.
It was not a poet but a scientist who has outlined this prospect.Such universals express various degrees and modes of reification.The image of the Welfare State sketched in the preceding paragraphs is that of a historical freak between organized capitalism and socialism, servitude and freedom, totalitarianism and happiness.
The political needs of society become individual needs and aspirations, their satisfaction promotes business and the commonweal, and the whole appeals to be the very embodiment of Reason.To be sure, the truth which he knows and expounds is potentially accessible to everyone.The link between desublimation and technological society can perhaps best be illuminated by discussing the change in the social use of instinctual energy.In this project, universal quantifiability is a prerequisite for the domination of nature.
When capitalism meets the challenge of communism, it meets its own capabilities: spectacular development of all productive forces after the subordination of the private interests in profitability which arrest such development.Under such conditions, decline of freedom and opposition is not a matter of moral or intellectual deterioration or corruption.In their main efforts, neither the idealist nor the materialist, neither the rationalist nor the empiricist schools seem to owe anything to it.Meeting in assembly, the individuals are the spokesmen (often unaware) of institutions, influences, interests embodied in organizations.The very notion of an objective substance, pitted against the subject, seems to disintegrate.The instruments of productivity and progress, organized into a totalitarian system, determine not only the actual but also the possible utilizations.In its cognitive function, poetry performs the great task of thought.
Such inequality is necessitated by genuine social needs, technical requirements, and the physical and mental differences among the individuals.And it could accomplish all this without abandoning the hold of total administration over the people.Once institutionalized, these rights and liberties shared the fate of the society of which they had become an integral part.Thus, the fact that the prevailing mode of freedom is servitude, and that the prevailing mode of equality is superimposed inequality is barred from expression by the closed definition of these concepts in terms of the powers which shape the respective universe of discourse.The enslavement of man by the instruments of his labor continues in a highly rationalized and vastly efficient and promising form.However, the close interrelation between technical and political-manipulative know-how, between profitable productivity and domination, lends to the conquest of scarcity the weapons for containing liberation.Moreover, this nation of the essential neutrality of science is also extended to technics.
As the substance of the various regimes no longer appeals in alternative modes of life, it comes to rest in alternative techniques of manipulation and control.Those whose life is the hell of the Affluent Society are kept in line by a brutality which revives medieval and early modern practices.In these circumstances, the transformation of under-developed into industrial societies must as quickly as possible discard the pre-technological forms.They have an open horizon, an entire universe of meaning which is gradually structured in the process of communication itself, but which is never closed.Scientific method develops in the tension between appearance and reality.Ascending modern rationalism, in its speculative as well as empirical form, shows a striking contrast between extreme critical radicalism in scientific and philosophic method on the one hand, and an uncritical quietism in the attitude toward established and functioning social institutions.The power over man which this society has acquired is daily absolved by its efficacy and productiveness.What is the original, pre-scientific intent and content that is preserved in the conceptual structure of science.I returned to the province capital of Xuan Loc,. with human eyesight plus sensory help---and plenty of combat engineers to. American tank and heard.
The operational concepts terminate in methods of improved social control: they become part of the science of management, Department of Human Relations.Their mere enumeration shows that they belong to a lost dimension.By virtue of the way it has organized its technological base, contemporary industrial society tends to be totalitarian.Materialism, which is not tainted by such ideological abuse of the soul, has a more universal and realistic concept of salvation.It militates against the closing of the universe of discourse and behaviour it fenders possible the development of concepts which destabilize and transcend the closed universe by comprehending it as historical universe.Solitude, the very condition which sustained the individual against and beyond his society, has become technically impossible.Unlike the rest of us, UPS has already begun to plan ahead for the holiday season. On Monday, UPS announced that it’s raising its shipping rates around Black Friday.